Have you ever felt a slight shock when touching some appliances while they are on and functioning? These shocks can occasionally pose serious risks and be dangerous. It is generally advisable to have the building properly earthed to prevent accidents. It is known as earthing to share the charges with the earth. There are also various types of earthing, which you’ll learn about in this article. The devices are shielded from electrical damage by the earth, which is straightforward for current leakage. In addition to balancing the load when the electrical system overloads grounding is a safety procedure that safeguards the entire power system from malfunctioning.
Now you have got to know what is meant by Earthing, but let’s see what are the types of earthing.
In India, pipe earthing is a popular method of connecting to the electrical conductors of the earth by use of a steel pipe. The amount of soil moisture and the strength of the current effect the iron pipe's size. The depth at which the steel pipe is to be installed depends on the moisture content of the soil. A pipe made of galvanized steel with openings is buried in the ground during this sort of earthing. The depth of the earth is a given depth. And the state of the soil affects this depth. Since soft soil has a lower holding capacity than hard soil, this rod must be buried deep in the ground to prevent any harm.
An earthing plate consisting of copper or G.I. is buried into the ground during plate earthing at a depth greater than 3 meters below ground level. A different layer of coke and salts surrounds this earthing plate. Additionally, earthing can make lightning protection systems better. Static charges and stray current mishaps can be avoided by plate earthing. In order to meet the earthing safety criteria for the electrical substation, it protects systems like central communication, electronic, and AC power systems.
It joins vertical and horizontal electrodes; the horizontal electrode discharges current produced by a large fault into the earth, while the vertical electrode represses it. To improve safety against touch and step potential, an Earth Mat is a mesh made of bare metallic conductors that are buried in shallow soil. Earth mats are a component of the grounding system used in industrial regions, substations, and other locations with significant power handling.
Strip earthing creates a channel that makes it simple for current to pass from broken electrical devices to the ground. The strips are further protected from the soil's corrosive properties by a layer of high-quality insulating material. Therefore, utilizing the strip earthing approach, all electrical appliances should be grounded for safety reasons. The earth stripping procedure is used to ground current primarily using copper strips. Copper earthing strips last longer and provide superior voltage transient protection because they are so resistant to corrosion.
The safest earthing method, known as marconite earthing, uses low-resistant copper earth electrodes that are especially created to provide solar power plants with an earthing system of the highest caliber. It is a dark grey substance that is combined with cement and water to create an earthing system that is secure and safe. The most effective premium electrically conductive backfill material in the world, Marconite dramatically improves the effects of copper earth electrodes to lower the resistance of a lightning protection or copper earthing system.
An electrical power system component called a substation has the ability to change the voltage from high to low or from low to high. This aids in the system's power transmission, distribution, and shut-off. A power transformer, insulator, circuit breaker, bus bar, lightning arrester, and lightning arrestor are some of the essential parts of an electric substation. Substations are categorized according to how much power they can transfer, and these categories include switchyards, customer substations, system stations, step-up substations, step-down substations, distribution-type transformers, underground distribution-type substations, and step-up substations.
Transmission lines are used to transfer information. Distances, signals bandwidth, and the technology used depend on the type of information. For example, the lines used for transatlantic telecommunications are optical fibers of several thousand kilometers in length, carrying electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies. Strip earthing is used in transmission processes. Strip electrodes of cross section not less than 25mm X 1.6mm of copper or 25 mm X 4mm of G.I. or steel are buried in horizontal trenches of a minimum depth of 0.5m.
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